Using Complexity to Measure Images

  Recently revealed analysis of NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) data has delivered images of unseen quality. The images of the Moon’s terrain made possible by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument onboard the LRO has been compared to similar images obtained using the Unified Lunar Control Network  based on the best available data…

When did the “Liquid Society” Start?

“Liquidity” by Lorenzo Genetti, January 2015, Mar del Plata, Argentina.   The characterization of modernity as a “liquid time” is one of the greatest successes of contemporary sociology. The term, coined by the Polish sociologist Zygmunt Bauman, realizes precisely the transition from a “solid” -stable, repetitive to a ‘liquid’ -flexible, voluble- modernity in which social…

Entropy, Complexity and the Strong Anthropic Principle

Observers are necessary to bring the Universe into being. The Universe must have those properties which allow life to develop within it at some stage in its history. The Universe (and hence the fundamental parameters on which it depends) must be such as to admit the creation of observers within it at some stage. These…

The Fourth Law

Entropy happens to all things physical which are larger than an atom. This means they run down, decay, and eventually cease to exist in their original form. This unavoidable demise has led us to the greatest mystery of the Universe that we have ever encountered. With an overwhelming tendency toward decay in the macroscopic world…

What are the Units of Complexity?

Complexity is a fundamental physical characteristic of every system that may be found in Nature. Its importance is similar to that of energy. There have been numerous attempts of measuring complexity. However, most are limited either to very simple systems, character strings or to computer code and have very little practical use. In many cases,…