Isn’t Everything a ‘Complex System’?

What distinguishes a theory from a conjecture? For example a characteristic constant (G, c, h, K, etc.) or a fundamental equation. The so-called today popular ‘complexity theory’ has none. Most importantly, it lacks a measure of its most fundamental quantity – complexity. But worse than that. It lacks a definition of complexity too! Increasing complexity…

How Complex is the Ulam Spiral?

From Wikipedia: “The Ulam spiral, or prime spiral (in other languages also called the Ulam Cloth) is a simple method of visualizing the prime numbers that reveals the apparent tendency of certain quadratic polynomials to generate unusually large numbers of primes. It was discovered by the mathematician Stanislaw Ulam in 1963…” How complex is it?…

Complexity – A New Approach to SETI

The SETI – Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence – is an initiative which has the objective of locating intelligent life in the Universe. Arrays of telescopes, such as the ATA, or large installations like the one in Arecibo, collect hundreds of terabytes of data every day, spanning a wide frequency band. Data typically has the aspect…

Will Global Trade Recover Anytime Soon?

In a 2015 United Nations Trade and Development Conference  report  “Trade Slowdown” one reads: ‘As of 2014 the trends in international trade were largely driven by the sluggish economic growth and the persisting economic and political turmoil in various part of the world. From 2011 to 2014 world trade grew at a rate of less…