Entropy, Complexity and the Strong Anthropic Principle

Observers are necessary to bring the Universe into being. The Universe must have those properties which allow life to develop within it at some stage in its history. The Universe (and hence the fundamental parameters on which it depends) must be such as to admit the creation of observers within it at some stage. These…

The Fourth Law

Entropy happens to all things physical which are larger than an atom. This means they run down, decay, and eventually cease to exist in their original form. This unavoidable demise has led us to the greatest mystery of the Universe that we have ever encountered. With an overwhelming tendency toward decay in the macroscopic world…

How To Create New Derivatives Based on Complexity

According to Wikipedia: “In finance, a derivative is a special type of contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity. This underlying entity can be an asset, index, or interest rate, and is often called the “underlying”. Derivatives can be used for a number of purposes – including insuring against price…

What are the Units of Complexity?

Complexity is a fundamental physical characteristic of every system that may be found in Nature. Its importance is similar to that of energy. There have been numerous attempts of measuring complexity. However, most are limited either to very simple systems, character strings or to computer code and have very little practical use. In many cases,…

Large-scale Analysis of Ecosystems of Corporations

In an interconnected and complex economy corporations form networks, or ecosystems. In the case of banks, telcos or insurance companies these ecosystems can be huge as they may contain millions of clients. Moreover, such ecosystems are changing constantly as companies compete, cooperate and default while new companies are being formed. Rapid change and complexity of…